```# Licensed under the GPLv3 - see LICENSE
"""

the information therein.

For the specification, see
https://www.haystack.mit.edu/tech/vlbi/mark5/docs/Mark%205B%20users%20manual.pdf
"""
import numpy as np
import astropy.units as u
from astropy.time import Time

from ..base.utils import bcd_decode, bcd_encode, fixedvalue, CRC

CRC16 = 0x18005
"""CRC polynomial used for Mark 5B Headers, as a check on the time code.

x^16 + x^15 + x^2 + 1, i.e., 0x18005.
See page 11 of https://www.haystack.mit.edu/tech/vlbi/mark5/docs/230.3.pdf

This is also CRC-16-IBM mentioned in
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_redundancy_check
"""
crc16 = CRC(CRC16)

"""Decoder/encoder of a Mark5B Frame Header.

See page 15 of
https://www.haystack.mit.edu/tech/vlbi/mark5/docs/Mark%205B%20users%20manual.pdf

Parameters
----------
words : tuple of int, or None
Four 32-bit unsigned int header words.  If `None`, set to a tuple of
zeros for later initialisation.
kday : int or None
Explicit thousands of MJD of the observation time (needed to remove
ambiguity in the Mark 5B time stamp).  Can instead pass an approximate
``ref_time``.
ref_time : `~astropy.time.Time` or None
Reference time within 500 days of the observation time, used to infer
the full MJD.  Used only if ``kday`` is not given.
verify : bool, optional
Whether to do basic verification of integrity.  Default: `True`.

Returns
-------
"""

('user', (1, 16, 16)),
('internal_tvg', (1, 15, 1)),
('frame_nr', (1, 0, 15)),
('bcd_jday', (2, 20, 12)),
('bcd_seconds', (2, 0, 20)),
('bcd_fraction', (3, 16, 16)),
('crc', (3, 0, 16))))
_invariants = {'sync_pattern'}
"""Keys of invariant parts in all Mark 5B headers."""
_stream_invariants = _invariants | {'user'}
"""Keys of invariant parts in a given Mark 5B stream."""

_struct = four_word_struct

'kday', 'jday', 'seconds', 'fraction', 'time')
"""Properties accessible/usable in initialisation."""

kday = None
"""Thousands of MJD, to complement ``jday`` from header."""

def __init__(self, words, kday=None, ref_time=None, verify=True):
if kday is not None:
self.kday = kday
super().__init__(words, verify=verify)
if kday is None and ref_time is not None:
self.infer_kday(ref_time)

[docs]    def verify(self):
assert len(self.words) == 4
assert self['sync_pattern'] == self._sync_pattern
assert self.kday is None or (33000 < self.kday < 400000)
if self.kday is not None:
assert self.kday % 1000 == 0, "kday must be thousands of MJD."

[docs]    def copy(self, **kwargs):
return super().copy(kday=self.kday, **kwargs)

[docs]    @classmethod
def fromvalues(cls, *, verify=True, **kwargs):
"""Initialise a header from parsed values.

Here, the parsed values must be given as keyword arguments, i.e., for

However, unlike for the :meth:`Mark5BHeader.fromkeys` class method,
data can also be set using arguments named after methods, such as
``jday`` and ``seconds``.

Given defaults:

Values set by other keyword arguments (if present):

bcd_jday : from ``jday`` or ``time``
bcd_seconds : from ``seconds`` or ``time``
bcd_fraction : from ``fraction`` or ``time`` (may need ``frame_rate``)
frame_nr : from ``time`` (may need ``frame_rate``)
"""
# This method exists only to be able to override the docstring.
return super().fromvalues(verify=verify, **kwargs)

[docs]    def update(self, *, time=None, frame_rate=None, crc=None, verify=True,
**kwargs):
"""Update the header by setting keywords or properties.

Here, any keywords matching header keys are applied first, and any
remaining ones are used to set header properties, in the order set
by the class (in ``_properties``).

Parameters
----------
time : `~astropy.time.Time`, optional
A possible new time.  This is updated last.
frame_rate : `~astropy.units.Quantity`, optional
The frame rate to use in calculating the frame number from the
time.  Needed for times at non-integer seconds.
crc : int or None, optional
If `None` (default), recalculate the CRC after updating.
verify : bool, optional
If `True` (default), verify integrity after updating.
**kwargs
Arguments used to set keywords and properties.
"""
super().update(verify=False, **kwargs)

if time is not None:
self.set_time(time, frame_rate=frame_rate)

if crc is None:
# Do not use words 2 & 3 directly, so that this works also if part
# of a VDIF header, where the time information is in words 7 & 8.
stream = ((((self['bcd_jday'] << 20)
+ self['bcd_seconds']) << 16)
+ self['bcd_fraction'])
crc = crc16(stream)

self['crc'] = crc
if verify:
self.verify()

[docs]    def infer_kday(self, ref_time):
"""Uses a reference time to set a header's ``kday``.

Parameters
----------
ref_time : `~astropy.time.Time`
Reference time within 500 days of the observation time.
"""
self.kday = np.around(ref_time.mjd - self.jday,
decimals=-3).astype(int)

@fixedvalue
"""Size of the payload in bytes (always 10000 for Mark5B)."""
return 10000  # 2500 words

@fixedvalue
def frame_nbytes(cls):
"""Size of the frame in bytes (always 10016 for Mark5B)."""

@fixedvalue
def complex_data(cls):
"""Whether the data are complex (always False for Mark5B)."""
return False

@property
def jday(self):
"""Last three digits of MJD (decoded from 'bcd_jday')."""
return bcd_decode(self['bcd_jday'])

@jday.setter
def jday(self, jday):
self['bcd_jday'] = bcd_encode(jday)

@property
def seconds(self):
"""Integer seconds on day (decoded from 'bcd_seconds')."""
return bcd_decode(self['bcd_seconds'])

@seconds.setter
def seconds(self, seconds):
self['bcd_seconds'] = bcd_encode(seconds)

@property
def fraction(self):
"""Fractional seconds (decoded from 'bcd_fraction').

The fraction is stored to 0.1 ms accuracy.  Following mark5access, this
is "unrounded" to give the exact time of the start of the frame for any
total bit rate below 512 Mbps.  For rates above this value, it is no
longer guaranteed that subsequent frames have unique rates.

Note to the above: since a Mark5B frame contains 80000 bits, the total
bit rate for which times can be unique would in principle be 800 Mbps.
However, standard VLBI only uses bit rates that are powers of 2 in MHz.
"""
ns = bcd_decode(self['bcd_fraction']) * 100000
# "Unround" the nanoseconds, and turn into fractional seconds.
return (156250 * ((ns + 156249) // 156250)) / 1e9

@fraction.setter
def fraction(self, fraction):
ns = np.around(fraction * 1.e9)
# From inspecting sample files, the fraction appears to be truncated,
# not rounded.
fraction = (ns / 100000).astype(int)
self['bcd_fraction'] = bcd_encode(fraction)

[docs]    def get_time(self, frame_rate=None):
"""Convert year, BCD time code to Time object.

Calculate time using `jday`, `seconds`, and `fraction` properties
(which reflect the bcd-encoded 'bcd_jday', 'bcd_seconds' and
'bcd_fraction' header items), plus `kday` from the initialisation.  See
https://www.haystack.mit.edu/tech/vlbi/mark5/docs/Mark%205B%20users%20manual.pdf

Note that some non-compliant files do not have 'bcd_fraction' set.
For those, the time can still be calculated using the header's
'frame_nr' by passing in a frame rate.

Furthermore, fractional seconds are stored only to 0.1 ms accuracy.
In the code, this is "unrounded" to give the exact time of the start
of the frame for any total bit rate below 512 Mbps.  For higher rates,
it is no longer guaranteed that subsequent frames have unique
`fraction`, and one should pass in an explicit frame rate instead.

Parameters
----------
frame_rate : `~astropy.units.Quantity`, optional
Used to calculate the fractional second from the frame number

Returns
-------
`~astropy.time.Time`
"""
frame_nr = self['frame_nr']
if frame_nr == 0:
fraction = 0.
elif frame_rate is None:
fraction = self.fraction
if fraction == 0.:
raise ValueError('header does not provide correct fractional '
'second (it is zero for non-zero frame '
'number). Please pass in a frame_rate.')
else:
fraction = (frame_nr / frame_rate).to_value(u.s)

return Time(self.kday + self.jday, (self.seconds + fraction) / 86400,
format='mjd', scale='utc', precision=9)

[docs]    def set_time(self, time, frame_rate=None):
"""
Convert Time object to BCD timestamp elements and 'frame_nr'.

For non-integer seconds, the frame number will be calculated if not
given explicitly. Doing so requires the frame rate.

Parameters
----------
time : `~astropy.time.Time`
The time to use for this header.
frame_rate : `~astropy.units.Quantity`, optional
For calculating 'frame_nr' from the fractional seconds.
"""
self.kday = int(time.mjd // 1000) * 1000
self.jday = int(time.mjd - self.kday)
seconds = time - Time(self.kday + self.jday, format='mjd')
int_sec = int(seconds.sec)
fraction = seconds - int_sec * u.s

# Round to nearest ns to handle timestamp difference errors.
if abs(fraction) < 1. * u.ns:
frame_nr = 0
frac_sec = 0.
elif abs(1. * u.s - fraction) < 1. * u.ns:
int_sec += 1
frame_nr = 0
frac_sec = 0.
else:
if frame_rate is None:
raise ValueError("cannot calculate frame rate. Pass it "
"in explicitly.")
frame_nr = int((fraction * frame_rate).to(u.one).round())
fraction = frame_nr / frame_rate
if abs(fraction - 1. * u.s) < 1. * u.ns:
int_sec += 1
frame_nr = 0
frac_sec = 0.
else:
frac_sec = fraction.to(u.s).value

self.seconds = int_sec
self.fraction = frac_sec
self['frame_nr'] = frame_nr

time = property(get_time, set_time)
```